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2 1

W W W . S F E R A . F M

П Т И Ц Е П Р О М / V I V E U R O P E 2 0 1 4

veterinary

as a minimum, with the last vaccina-

tion done not later than two weeks be-

fore the slaughter to ensure the bird’s

immunity formation. This interval is

very complicated to observe.

In egg farming breeding period is

much longer which requires more vac-

cinations.

– So, would you name vaccination a cure-

all solution?

– Speaking on virus infections, most

of them can really be defeated by vac-

cination. However, in the most cases

birds die in the result of bacterial in-

fection. And in such cases one can’t

avoid using antimicrobials the most

popular of which are antibiotics.

– Many poultry farmers all over the world are

trying to minimize using of antibiotics today.

Is there any reasonable cause for that?

– Antibiotics played a very important

role in medical treatment of both

humans and animals since penicil-

lin invention, but incorrect applica-

tion of these preparations results

in emergence of antibiotic-resistant

microorganisms.

It all began when stock farmers start-

ed to use antibiotics as growth-pro-

moting agents. It’s a wrong way while

antibiotics affect intestinal microflo-

ra impeding strong immunity forma-

tion and normal food digesting.

Besides, antibiotics are not fully dis-

posed from the body and remain in

the products of animal origin. If lay-

ing hens are given antibiotics within

the productive period eggs containing

antibiotics will be delivered directly

to the consumer’s table. Consumption

of these products can have an adverse

effect on human health.

– Other words, antibiotics are harmful even

in small amounts?

– I think that small amounts of antibi-

otics are even more harmful while in

this case we train pathogenic bacteria

to resist antibiotics and, as a result,

larger doses of these preparations do

have any effect on pathogenic micro-

flora. Consumption of products of

animal origin containing antibiotics

residuals leads to the loss of efficiency

of antibacterial preparations in hu-

man’s organism.

– Is there any alternative to antibiotics?

– There are several ways to avoid anti-

biotics application. Some bacterial de-

ceases like pateurellosis, mycoplasmo-

sis, salmonelloses, provoked by certain

salmonellas can be defeated by vaccines

that are less harmful than antibiotics.

For certain types of salmonellosis and

colibacillosis there is no vaccine, how-

ever, as alternatives to antibiotics one

may use probiotics (containing lacto-

bacteria, for example), prebiotics (or-

ganic acids) that displace pathogenic

flora from intestinal tract.

Besides, there is a substitution thera-

py, so called traps for microbes which

block bacteria in certain areas and

excrete them from the body. Alltech

Company, for example, has devel-

oped mannan-oligosaccharide-based

Bio-Mos and Actigen preparations

that force growth and productivity,

improve functioning of gastroenter-

ic tract and immune system. Intro-

duced into the intestinal tract, these

preparations inhibit its colonization

by the pathogenic flora blocking fim-

bria of Type I which prevents bacteria

attaching to the digestive tract mu-

cous membrane.

Furthermore, some infections can be

cured by bacteriophages, or viruses that

defeat bacteria, instead of antibiotics.

But the best method is not to cure de-

cease but to ensure conditions that

will help the immune system defeat

the bacteria. Incorrect vaccination

and implementation of antibacterial

preparations lead to immunodepres-

sive state of the organism which may

result in development of secondary in-

fections, low effectiveness of vaccina-

tions and immunity weakness.

– What countries are leading in vaccine

development today?

– In terms of veterinary vaccines, the

leaders are the Netherlands, France, the

USA. However, Russian enterprises and

research organizations can also develop

effective vaccines as well as produce

them on the basis of ready develop­

ments, foreign ones among them.

Our Institute, for instance, is devel-

oping and producing vaccines that

struggle not only viruses and bacterial

infections but also parasitic deceases,

given that very few scientists are able

to develop anti-parasite vaccine.

– Would you, please, tell us about bird

vaccination by spraying? What are the

advantages of this method?

– The main advantage of airborne meth-

od, or spraying, is its ease in application:

there is no need to give an injection to

every bird. This method is very cost-ef-

fective. Besides, airborne vaccination is

themost effectivemethod of respiratory

diseases, including infectious bronchi-

tis, metapneumovirus, etc.

There are several types of airborne

vaccination: microdrop spraying and

macrovesicular spraying. The choice

should be made basing on the infection

that is struggled against. Minor drops

get into lower respiratory tract: bron-

chi and lungs; larger ones – into upper

tract: nasal passages, trachea or worse.

The point is that deep penetration of

certain infection’s virus, even if it is

a vaccine, is very dangerous and can

give rise to various complications.

Choice of vaccination method be-

tween macrovesicular and microdrop

spraying depends not only on the in-

fection type against which preventive

measures are taken but also on overall

epidemical situation at the farm. For

example, if a factory had cases of re-

spiratory micoplasmosis, a bird should

not be vaccinated by microdrop spray-

ing because preparations entering

lower respiratory tract may give rise

to various complications.

However, spraying can’t fully elimi-

nate traditional vaccination meth-

ods. Thus, inactivated vaccines can

be introduced only by hypodermic

or intramuscular injection. Liv-

ing vaccines can be implemented

through injections, spraying, aero-

sol dispersing, with drinking and

even feeding.

– Can feed additives replace vaccines to

any extent?

– As per today it is impossible to form

strong immunity with the help of

feed additives that is why additives,

immune stimulants, preparations im-

proving immune system are effective

only if accompanied by vaccination.

– Would you, please, tell us few words about

innovations in vaccination sphere?

– Vaccines are upgraded constantly.

The scientists have already mastered

to make not only live engineered and

inactivated vaccines, but also im-

mune complexes. I would especially

emphasize recombination vaccines,

i.e. the vaccines produced by integra-

tion of one virus genome particle into

another virus genome structure with

the help of genetic engineering. Such

complexes form rather a strong im-

munity and do not cause much harm

to the organism.

– Nowadays we see growing number of

ecofarms that have refused veterinary

preparations completely. Do you consider

this way of work feasible for our country?

– What concerns minor farms that

serve premium niche, full elimina-

tion of veterinary preparations is pos-

sible but it is very complicated to grow

a bird without vaccination that is why

finished product will cost very high.

But one of the specific features of Rus-

sian poultry industry is dominancy

of large factories that can’t eliminate

vaccination yet. However, one can

avoid using antibiotics, if implement

appropriate therapeutic and preven-

tive measures and high quality bio-

pharmaceuticals.

– What vaccines and vaccination method

do you consider the most perspective ones?

– Among vaccination methods one of

the most perspective ones is a method

of embryo vaccination when prepara-

tion is introduced before the birth of

a bird. In this case chickens are pro-

duced with protection.

Speaking on innovative technologies

in general, I would say that future be-

longs to complex engineered vaccines.

Some experts foresee a coming inven-

tion of a preparation that will unite all

the vaccines though I do not believe

that it will appear at the market in the

nearest future.

«There are several types of airborne vacc i-

nat ion: microdrop spraying and macrove-

sicular spraying. The main advantage of

airborne method, or spraying, i s its ease

in applicat ion: there i s no need to give an

injec t ion to every bird».

Фото: птицефабрика «Роскар»