W W W . S F E R A . F M
П Т И Ц Е П Р О М / V I V E U R O P E 2 0 1 4
as a minimum, with the last vaccina-
tion done not later than two weeks be-
fore the slaughter to ensure the bird’s
immunity formation. This interval is
very complicated to observe.
In egg farming breeding period is
much longer which requires more vac-
– So, would you name vaccination a cure-
– Speaking on virus infections, most
of them can really be defeated by vac-
cination. However, in the most cases
birds die in the result of bacterial in-
fection. And in such cases one can’t
avoid using antimicrobials the most
popular of which are antibiotics.
– Many poultry farmers all over the world are
trying to minimize using of antibiotics today.
Is there any reasonable cause for that?
– Antibiotics played a very important
role in medical treatment of both
humans and animals since penicil-
lin invention, but incorrect applica-
tion of these preparations results
in emergence of antibiotic-resistant
It all began when stock farmers start-
ed to use antibiotics as growth-pro-
moting agents. It’s a wrong way while
antibiotics affect intestinal microflo-
ra impeding strong immunity forma-
tion and normal food digesting.
Besides, antibiotics are not fully dis-
posed from the body and remain in
the products of animal origin. If lay-
ing hens are given antibiotics within
the productive period eggs containing
antibiotics will be delivered directly
to the consumer’s table. Consumption
of these products can have an adverse
effect on human health.
– Other words, antibiotics are harmful even
in small amounts?
– I think that small amounts of antibi-
otics are even more harmful while in
this case we train pathogenic bacteria
to resist antibiotics and, as a result,
larger doses of these preparations do
have any effect on pathogenic micro-
flora. Consumption of products of
animal origin containing antibiotics
residuals leads to the loss of efficiency
of antibacterial preparations in hu-
– Is there any alternative to antibiotics?
– There are several ways to avoid anti-
biotics application. Some bacterial de-
ceases like pateurellosis, mycoplasmo-
sis, salmonelloses, provoked by certain
salmonellas can be defeated by vaccines
that are less harmful than antibiotics.
For certain types of salmonellosis and
colibacillosis there is no vaccine, how-
ever, as alternatives to antibiotics one
may use probiotics (containing lacto-
bacteria, for example), prebiotics (or-
ganic acids) that displace pathogenic
flora from intestinal tract.
Besides, there is a substitution thera-
py, so called traps for microbes which
block bacteria in certain areas and
excrete them from the body. Alltech
Company, for example, has devel-
Bio-Mos and Actigen preparations
that force growth and productivity,
improve functioning of gastroenter-
ic tract and immune system. Intro-
duced into the intestinal tract, these
preparations inhibit its colonization
by the pathogenic flora blocking fim-
bria of Type I which prevents bacteria
attaching to the digestive tract mu-
Furthermore, some infections can be
cured by bacteriophages, or viruses that
defeat bacteria, instead of antibiotics.
But the best method is not to cure de-
cease but to ensure conditions that
will help the immune system defeat
the bacteria. Incorrect vaccination
and implementation of antibacterial
preparations lead to immunodepres-
sive state of the organism which may
result in development of secondary in-
fections, low effectiveness of vaccina-
tions and immunity weakness.
– What countries are leading in vaccine
– In terms of veterinary vaccines, the
leaders are the Netherlands, France, the
USA. However, Russian enterprises and
research organizations can also develop
effective vaccines as well as produce
them on the basis of ready develop
ments, foreign ones among them.
Our Institute, for instance, is devel-
oping and producing vaccines that
struggle not only viruses and bacterial
infections but also parasitic deceases,
given that very few scientists are able
to develop anti-parasite vaccine.
– Would you, please, tell us about bird
vaccination by spraying? What are the
advantages of this method?
– The main advantage of airborne meth-
od, or spraying, is its ease in application:
there is no need to give an injection to
every bird. This method is very cost-ef-
fective. Besides, airborne vaccination is
themost effectivemethod of respiratory
diseases, including infectious bronchi-
tis, metapneumovirus, etc.
There are several types of airborne
vaccination: microdrop spraying and
macrovesicular spraying. The choice
should be made basing on the infection
that is struggled against. Minor drops
get into lower respiratory tract: bron-
chi and lungs; larger ones – into upper
tract: nasal passages, trachea or worse.
The point is that deep penetration of
certain infection’s virus, even if it is
a vaccine, is very dangerous and can
give rise to various complications.
Choice of vaccination method be-
tween macrovesicular and microdrop
spraying depends not only on the in-
fection type against which preventive
measures are taken but also on overall
epidemical situation at the farm. For
example, if a factory had cases of re-
spiratory micoplasmosis, a bird should
not be vaccinated by microdrop spray-
ing because preparations entering
lower respiratory tract may give rise
to various complications.
However, spraying can’t fully elimi-
nate traditional vaccination meth-
ods. Thus, inactivated vaccines can
be introduced only by hypodermic
or intramuscular injection. Liv-
ing vaccines can be implemented
through injections, spraying, aero-
sol dispersing, with drinking and
– Can feed additives replace vaccines to
– As per today it is impossible to form
strong immunity with the help of
feed additives that is why additives,
immune stimulants, preparations im-
proving immune system are effective
only if accompanied by vaccination.
– Would you, please, tell us few words about
innovations in vaccination sphere?
– Vaccines are upgraded constantly.
The scientists have already mastered
to make not only live engineered and
inactivated vaccines, but also im-
mune complexes. I would especially
emphasize recombination vaccines,
i.e. the vaccines produced by integra-
tion of one virus genome particle into
another virus genome structure with
the help of genetic engineering. Such
complexes form rather a strong im-
munity and do not cause much harm
to the organism.
– Nowadays we see growing number of
ecofarms that have refused veterinary
preparations completely. Do you consider
this way of work feasible for our country?
– What concerns minor farms that
serve premium niche, full elimina-
tion of veterinary preparations is pos-
sible but it is very complicated to grow
a bird without vaccination that is why
finished product will cost very high.
But one of the specific features of Rus-
sian poultry industry is dominancy
of large factories that can’t eliminate
vaccination yet. However, one can
avoid using antibiotics, if implement
appropriate therapeutic and preven-
tive measures and high quality bio-
– What vaccines and vaccination method
do you consider the most perspective ones?
– Among vaccination methods one of
the most perspective ones is a method
of embryo vaccination when prepara-
tion is introduced before the birth of
a bird. In this case chickens are pro-
duced with protection.
Speaking on innovative technologies
in general, I would say that future be-
longs to complex engineered vaccines.
Some experts foresee a coming inven-
tion of a preparation that will unite all
the vaccines though I do not believe
that it will appear at the market in the
«There are several types of airborne vacc i-
nat ion: microdrop spraying and macrove-
sicular spraying. The main advantage of
airborne method, or spraying, i s its ease
in applicat ion: there i s no need to give an
injec t ion to every bird».
Фото: птицефабрика «Роскар»